英语论文写作中,如何使用冒号?

发布时间:2018-12-27


1.介绍一个或多个项目:

Humans use five major senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.


分隔两个独立从句,第二个从句用来叙述、说明、改写或延伸第一个从句:
Martha realized that her worst fear was coming true: her son was being sent to war.
(*冒号后用独立的从句解释Martha’s fear)
 
2.商业书信或正式信件开头问候语:

To the Central Valley Committee Chairman:


3.其他冒号使用准则

3.1冒号后的第一个字母不要大写,除非是专有名词, is part of a quote, or is the first in a series of sentences:
错误范例: I have three desires: To eat, sleep, and work.
正确范例 : I have three desires: to eat, sleep, and work.
 
3.2当引号内包含多个句子,许多作者会倾向使用冒号而非逗号来引出内容:
In Chapter 3, the author explains his theory: “Dogs have dreams, but they don’t dream as humans do. Their dreams reflect a primal desire for pleasure, whereas humans are preoccupied with the ego and self-image. This is equally true in wakefulness and sleep.”
 
3.3接在冒号之后的内容不一定要是完整的句子,可以是单词或短语:

There is one mantra that can sum up our position towards climate change: urgent action.


4常见冒号错误

4.1分隔平等并且无相关的两个从句:
错误范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain: nature always held a special meaning for them.
正确范例: Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain; nature always held a special meaning for them.

(*若两个从句完全无相关,则应使用句号;若第二个从句和第一个从句有某种程度相关,并且并非用来陈述、说明或改写第一个子句,则使用分号分隔)


4.2过度使用冒号:

冒号属于强调性质的标点符号,要避免过多使用。请将冒号想像为暂停标志,用来引起读者注意“Hey! Pay attention to this. This is important.” 如果路上有过多的暂停标志,则无法顺利并快速的前进,同样的道理,若文章中包含过多的冒号,读者也无法顺利阅读。

冒号主要用来吸引读者注意力并清楚的指出重要信息,因此,许多作者会使用冒号来导出他们的重要主张或是用来支撑证明。

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